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State Constitutions



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Note: states are listed below in the order of their admission to the Union.

Delaware

December 7, 1787, Delaware was the 1st State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Delaware, adopted 1776, stated:

Article XXII
Every person who shall be chosen a member of either house, or appointed to any office or place of trust shall make and subscribe the following declaration, to wit: "I do profess faith in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ His only Son, and in the Holy Ghost, one God, blessed for evermore; I do acknowledge the holy scriptures of the Old and New Testaments to be given by divine inspiration.”

The Constitution of the State of Delaware, adopted 1831, stated:

It is the duty of all men frequently to assemble together for the public worship of the Author of the Universe; and piety and morality, on which the prosperity of communities depends, are thereby promoted.

No power shall or ought to be invested in or assumed by any magistrate that shall in any case interfere with the free exercise of religious, worship.

The Constitution of the State of Delaware, adopted 1897, stated:

Preamble
Through Divine Goodness all men have, by nature, the rights of worshipping and serving their Creator according to the dictates of their consciences.

Article I, Section 1
It is the duty of all men frequently to assemble together for the public worship of Almighty God; and piety and morality, on which the prosperity of communities depends, are hereby promoted.

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Pennsylvania

December 12, 1787, Pennsylvania was the 2nd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Pennsylvania, adopted 1776, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, and humbly invoking His guidance, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Frame of Government, Chapter 2, Section 10
And each member [of the legislature], before he takes his seat, shall make and subscribe the following declaration, viz:
"I do believe in one God, the Creator and Governour of the Universe, the Rewarder of the good and Punisher of the wicked, and I do acknowledge the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by Divine Inspiration."

The Constitution of the State of Pennsylvania, adopted 1874, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, and humbly invoking His guidance, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 3
All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

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New Jersey

December 18, 1787, New Jersey was the 3rd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of New Jersey, adopted 1776, stated:

Article XVIII
That no person shall ever, within this Colony, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping Almighty God in a manner agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience;

That there shall be no establishment of any one religious sect in this Province, in preference to another; and that no Protestant inhabitant of this Colony shall be denied the enjoyment of any civil right, merely on account of his religious principles;

That all persons, professing a belief in the faith of any Protestant sect, and who should demean himself peaceably under the government, should be capable of being elected unto any office of profit or trust, or of being a member of either branch of the Legislature.

The Constitution of the State of New Jersey, adopted 1844 and 1947, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of New Jersey, grateful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our endeavors to secure and transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generations, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 3
No person shall be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping Almighty God in a manner agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience.

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Georgia

January 2, 1788, Georgia was the 4th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Georgia, adopted 1777, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Georgia, relying upon protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article VI
All members of the Legislature shall be of the Protestant religion. The representatives shall be chosen out of the residents in each county and they shall be of the Protestant religion.

Article LVI
All persons whatever shall have the free exercise of their religion; provided it not be repugnant to the peace and safety of the State; and shall not, unless by consent, support any teacher or teachers except those of their own profession.

The Constitution of the State of Georgia, adopted 1798, stated:

Article IV, Section 10.
No person within this State shall, upon any pretense, be deprived of the inestimable privilege of worshipping God nor shall any person be denied the enjoyment of any civil right merely on account of his religious principles.

The Constitution of the State of Georgia, adopted 1945, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Georgia, relying upon protection and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 2-112
All men have the natural and inalienable right to worship God, each according to the dictates of his own conscience.

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Connecticut

January 9, 1788, Connecticut was the 5th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Connecticut, adopted 1776, stated:

The People of this State, by the Providence of God, hath the sole and exclusive right of governing themselves as a free, sovereign, and independent State, and forasmuch as the free fruition of such liberties and privileges as humanity, civility, and Christianity call for, as is due to every man in his place and proportion, hath ever been, and will be the tranquility and stability of Churches and Commonwealth; and the denial thereof, the disturbances, if not the ruin of both.

The Constitution of the State of Connecticut, adopted 1818, stated:

Preamble
The People of Connecticut, acknowledging with gratitude the good Providence of God in permitting them to enjoy a free government, do establish this Constitution.

Article VII, Section 1
It being the duty of all men to worship the Supreme Being, the Great Creator and Preserver of the Universe, and their right to render that worship, in the mode most consistent with the dictates of their consciences.

And each and every society or denomination of Christians in this State shall have and enjoy the same and equal powers, rights, and privileges, and shall have power and authority to support and maintain the ministers or teachers of their respective denominations, and to build and repair houses for public worship, by a tax on the members of any such society only, to be laid by a major vote of the legal voters assembled at any society meeting, warned and held according to law, or in any other manner.

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Massachusetts

February 6, 1788, Massachusetts was the 6th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of Massachusetts, adopted 1780, stated:

Preamble
We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the great Legislator of the Universe, in affording us, in the course of His Providence, an opportunity, deliberately and peaceably, without fraud, violence, or surprise, of entering into an original, explicit, and solemn compact with each other; and devoutly imploring His direction in so interesting a design.

The Governor shall be chosen annually; and no person shall be eligible to this office, unless, at the time of his election he shall declare himself to be of the Christian religion.

Chapter VI, Article I
Any person chosen governor, or lieutenant-governor, counselor, senator, or representative, and accepting the trust, shall before he proceed to execute the duties of his place or office, take, make and subscribe the following declaration, viz.

"I do declare, that I believe the Christian religion, and have firm persuasion of its truth."

Part I, Article II
It is the right, as well as the duty, of all men in society, publicly, and at stated seasons, to worship the Supreme Being, the Great Creator and Preserver of the Universe. And no subject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained, in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshipping God in the manner and seasons, most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience, or for his religious profession of sentiments; provided he doth not disturb the public peace, or obstruct others in their religious worship.

Part I, Article III
As the happiness of a people and the good order and preservation of civil government essentially depend upon piety, religion, and morality; and as these cannot be generally diffused throughout a community but by the institution of the public worship of God and of public instructions, in piety, religion, and morality:

Therefore to promote their happiness and secure the good order and preservation of their government, the People of this Commonwealth have the right to invest their legislature with power to authorize and require, and the legislature shall from time to time authorize and require, the several towns, parishes, precincts, and other bodies-politic or religious societies, to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the institution of the public worship of God and the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers of piety, religion, and morality in all cases where such provision shall not be made voluntary.

And the people of this commonwealth have also a right to, and do, invest their legislature with authority to enjoin on all the subjects an attendance upon the instructions of the public teachers aforesaid at stated times and seasons, if there be any on whose instructions they can conscientiously attend.

Because a frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of the Constitution, and a constant adherence to those of piety, justice, moderation, temperance, industry, and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the advantage of liberty and to maintain a free government, the people ought consequently to have a particular regard to all those principles in the choice of their officers and representatives;

And they have a right to require of their lawgivers and magistrates an exact and constant observance of them in the formation and execution of all laws necessary for the good of the commonwealth.

Any person chosen governor, lieutenant governor, counselor, senator, or representative, and accepting the trust, shall subscribe a solemn profession that he believes in the Christian religion, and has a firm persuasion of its truth.

And every denomination of Christians, demeaning themselves peaceably and as good subjects of the commonwealth, shall be equally under the protection of the law; and no subordination of, any one sect or denomination shall ever be established by law.

The Constitution of the State of Massachusetts, adopted 1919, stated:

Preamble
We, therefore, the people of Massachusetts, acknowledging, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the great Legislator of the Universe, in affording us, in the course of His providence and devoutly imploring His direction in so interesting a design, establish this Constitution.

Declaration of Rights, Article II
It is the right as well as the duty of all men in society, publicly, and at stated seasons to worship the Supreme Being, the great Creator and Preserver of the Universe.

Declaration of Rights, Article III
As the public worship of God and instructions in piety, religion and morality, promote the happiness and prosperity of a people and the security of republican government.

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Maryland

April 28, 1788, Maryland was the 7th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Maryland, adopted 1776, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the state of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberty.

Article XXXV
That no other test or qualification ought to be required, on admission to any office of trust or profit, than such oath of support and fidelity to this State and such oath of office, as shall be directed by this Convention, or the Legislature of this State, and a declaration of a belief in the Christian religion.

Article XXXVI
That the manner of administering an oath to any person, ought to be such, as those of the religious persuasion, profession, or denomination, of which such person is one, generally esteem to most effectual confirmation, by the attestation of the Divine Being.

Article XIX; XXXIII
That, as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such a manner as he thinks most acceptable to him; all persons, professing the Christian religion, are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty;

wherefore no person ought by any law to be molested in his person or estate on account of his religious persuasion of profession, or for his religious practice; unless under colour of religion, any man shall disturb the good order, peace or safety of the State or shall infringe the laws of morality, yet the Legislature may, in their discretion, lay a general and equal tax, for the support of the Christian religion; leaving to each individual the power of appointing the payment over the money, collected from him, to the support of any particular place of worship or minister, or for the benefit of the poor or his own denomination, of the poor in general if any particular bounty;

but the churches, chapels, glebes, and all other property now belonging to the Church of England, ought to remain the Church of England forever.

The Constitution of the State of Maryland, adopted 1851, declared that no other test or qualification for admission to any office of trust or profit shall be required than the official oath and:

A declaration of belief in the Christian religion; and if the party shall profess to be a Jew the declaration shall be of his belief in a future state of rewards and punishments.

The Constitution of the State of Maryland, adopted 1864, required all State officers to make:

A declaration of belief in the Christian religion, or of the existence of God, and in a future state of rewards and punishments.

The Constitution of the State of Maryland, adopted 1867, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Maryland, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberty.

Article XXXVI
That as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such manner as he thinks most acceptable to Him, all persons are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty.

Article XXXVI
That no religious test ought ever to be required as a qualification for any office of profit or trust in this state, other than a declaration of belief in the existence of God.

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South Carolina

May 23, 1788, South Carolina was the 8th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of South Carolina, adopted 1778, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of South Carolina, grateful to God for our liberties, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the preservation and perpetuation of the same.

Article III
[State officers and privy council to be] all of the Protestant religion.

Article XII
The qualifications of electors shall be that every person, who acknowledges the being of a God, and believes in the future state of rewards and punishments [shall be eligible to vote].

No person shall be eligible to sit in the house of representatives unless he be of the Protestant religion.

No person shall be eligible to a seat in the said senate unless he be of the Protestant religion.

Article XXXVIII
That all persons and religious societies, who acknowledge that there is one God, and a future state of rewards and punishments, and that God is publicly to be worshipped, shall be freely tolerated.

The Christian Protestant religion shall be deemed, and is hereby constituted and declared to be, the established religion, of this State.

That all denominations of Christian Protestants in this State, demeaning themselves peaceably and faithfully shall enjoy equal religious and civil privileges.

To accomplish this desirable purpose without injury to the religious property of those societies of Christians which are by law already incorporated for the purpose of religious worship, and to put it fully into the power of every other society of Christian Protestants, either already formed or hereafter to be formed, to obtain the like incorporation, it is hereby constituted, appointed, and declared that the respective societies of the Church of England, that are already formed in this State for the purpose of religious worship, shall continue incorporate and hold the religious property now in their possession.

And that whenever fifteen or more male persons not under twenty-one years of age, professing the Christian Protestant religion, and agreeing to unite themselves in a society for the purposes of religious worship, they shall (on complying with the terms hereinafter mentioned) be and be constituted a Church, and be esteemed and regarded in law as of the established religion of the State, and on a petition to the legislature shall be entitled to be incorporated and to enjoy equal privileges.

That every society of Christians so formed shall give themselves a name or denomination, by which they shall be called and known in law, and all that associated with them for the purpose of worship shall be esteemed as belonging to the society so called; but that previous to the establishment and incorporation of the respective societies of every denomination as aforesaid, and in order to entitle them thereto, each society so petitioning shall have agreed to and subscribed in a book the five following articles without which no agreement or union of men upon pretence of religion, shall entitle them to be incorporated and esteemed as a church of the established religion in this State:
I. That there is one Eternal God, and a future state of rewards and punishments.

II. That God is publicly worshipped.

III. That the Christian religion is the true religion.

IV. That the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are of Divine inspiration, and are the rule of faith and practices.

V. That it is lawful and the duty of every man being thereunto called by those that govern, to bear witness to truth. That every inhabitant of this State, when called to make an appeal to God as a witness to truth, shall be permitted to do it in that way which is most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience. And that the people of this State may forever enjoy the right of electing their own pastors or clergy, and, at the same time, that the State may have sufficient security for the due discharge of the pastoral office by those who shall be admitted to be clergymen, no person shall officiate as minister of any established church who shall not have been chosen by a majority of the society to which he shall minister, or by persons appointed by the said majority to choose and procure a minister for them, nor until the minister so chosen and appointed shall have made and subscribed the following declaration, over and above the aforesaid five articles, viz.:

That he is determined, by God’s grace, out of the Holy Scriptures, to instruct the people committed to his charge, and to teach nothing (as required of necessity to eternal salvation) but that which he shall be persuaded may be concluded and proved from the Scriptures; that he will use both public and private admonitions, as well to the sick as to the whole within his cure, as need shall require and occasion shall be given; and that he will be diligent in prayers, and in reading of the Holy Scriptures, and in such studies as help to the knowledge of the same; that he will be diligent to frame and fashion his own self and his family according to the doctrine of Christ, and to make both himself and them, as much as in him lieth, wholesome examples and patterns to the flock of Christ; that he will maintain and set forward, as much as he can, quietness, peace, and love among all the people, and especially among those who are or shall be committed to his charge.

No person shall disturb or molest any religious assembly, nor shall use any reproachful, railing, or abusive language against any Church, that being the certain way of disturbing the peace, and of hindering the conversion of any to the truth, by engaging them in quarrels and animosities, to the hatred of the professors, and that professions which otherwise they might be brought to assent to.

No person shall, by law, be obliged to pay toward the maintenance and support of a religious worship that he does not freely join in, or has not voluntarily engaged to support.

But the churches, chapels, parsonages, glebes, and all other property now belonging to any societies of the Church of England, or any other religious society, shall remain and be secured to them forever.

They should chose by ballot from among themselves, or from the people at large, a governor and commander-in-chief, a lieutenant-governor, and privy council, all of the Protestant religion; that no person should be eligible to a seat in the Senate unless he be of the Protestant religion; that no person should be eligible to sit in the House of Representatives unless he be of the Protestant religion.
The Constitution of the State of South Carolina, adopted 1790, stated:

Article VIII, Section I
The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship shall forever hereafter be allowed within this State provided, that the liberty of conscience thereby declared shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of this State.

Article XXXVIII
That all persons and religious societies, who acknowledge that there is one God, and a future state of rewards and punishments, and that God is publicly to be worshipped, shall be freely tolerated.

That all denominations of Christians] in this State, demeaning themselves peaceably and faithfully, shall enjoy equal religious and civil privileges.

The Constitution of the State of South Carolina, adopted 1895, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of South Carolina, grateful to God for our liberties, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the preservation and perpetuation of the same.

Article XVII, Section 4
No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office under this Constitution.

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New Hampshire

June 21, 1788, New Hampshire was the 9th State admitted to the Union, completing the ratification of the United States Constitution.

The Constitution of the State of New Hampshire, adopted 1776, stated:

That morality and piety, rightly grounded on evangelical principles would give the best and greatest security to government, and would lay in the hearts of men the strongest obligation to due subjection; and that the knowledge of these was most likely to be propagated by the institution of the public worship of the Deity and instruction in morality and religion.

The Constitution of the State of New Hampshire, adopted 1784 and 1792, stated:

[Senators and Representatives are to be of the] Protestant religion.

Declaration of Rights
The open denial of the being and existence of God or of the Supreme Being is prohibited by statute, and declared to be blasphemy.

Part One, Article I, Section V
Every individual has a natural and unalienable right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience, and reason; and no subject shall be hurt, molested, or restrained in his person, liberty or estate for worshipping God, in the manner and season most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience; or for his religious profession, sentiments or persuasion; provided he doth not disturb the public peace, or disturb others, in their religious worship.

Article I, Section VI
As morality and piety, rightly grounded on evangelical principles, will give the best and greatest security to government, and will lay in the hearts of men the strongest obligations to due subjection; and as the knowledge of these is most likely to be propagated through a society by the institution of the public worship of the Deity and of public instruction in morality and religion;

therefore, to promote these important purposes, the people of this state have a right to empower, and do hereby fully empower, the legislature to authorize from time to time, the several towns, parishes, bodies-corporate, or religious societies within this State, to make adequate provision at their own expense, for the support and maintenance of public Protestant teachers of piety, religion and morality.

And every denomination of Christians demeaning themselves quietly, and as good citizens of the state, shall be equally under the protection of the laws; and no subordination of any one sect or denomination to another, shall ever be established by law.

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Virginia

June 25, 1788, Virginia was the 10th State admitted to the Union.
The Constitution of the State of Virginia, adopted June 12, 1776, stated:

Bill of Rights, Article XVI
That Religion, or the Duty which we owe our Creator, and the Manner of discharging it, can be directed only by Reason and Convictions, not by Force or Violence; and therefore all Men are equally entitled to the free exercise of Religion, according to the Dictates of Conscience; and that it is the mutual Duty of all to practice Christian Forbearance, Love, and Charity towards each other.

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New York

July 26, 1788, New York was the 11th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of New York, adopted 1777, stated:

Article XXXVIII
The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever hereafter be allowed, within this State, to all mankind: Provided, that the liberty of conscience, hereby granted, shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness.

The Constitution of the State of New York, adopted 1777 and 1821, stated:

And Whereas we are required, by the benevolent principles of rational liberty, not only to expel civil tyranny, but also to guard against that spiritual oppression and intolerance wherewith the bigotry and ambition of weak and wicked priests and princes have scourged mankind:

This Convention doth further, in the name and by the authority of the good people of this State, ordain, determine, and declare that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever hereafter be allowed within this State to all mankind:

Provided, That the liberty of conscience hereby granted shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this State.

And Whereas the ministers of the gospel are, by their profession, dedicated to the service of God and the cure of souls ought not to be diverted from the great duties of their function.

Blasphemy is a crime at common law and is not abrogated by the constitution.

The Constitution of the State of New York, adopted 1846, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of New York, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do establish this Constitution.

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North Carolina

November 21, 1789, North Carolina was the 12th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of North Carolina, adopted 1776, stated:

Article XIX
That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience.

Article XXXII
That no person who shall deny the being of God, or the truth of the Protestant religion, or the divine authority of the Old or New Testaments, or who shall hold religious principles incompatible with the freedom and safety of the State, shall be capable of holding any office or place of trust or profit in the civil department within this State.

(In 1835, the word "Protestant" was changed to "Christian").

Section XXXIV
There shall be no establishment of any one religious church or denomination in this State in preference to any other.

The Constitution of the State of North Carolina, adopted 1868, stated:

Preamble
We the people of the State of North Carolina, grateful to Almighty God, the Sovereign Ruler of Nations, for the preservation of the American Union and the existence of our civil, political, and religious liberties, and acknowledging our dependence upon Him for the continuance of those blessings to us and our posterity, do, for the more certain security thereof and for the better government of this State, ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 1
That we hold it to be self-evident that all persons are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights.

Article I, Section 26
All persons have a natural and inalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

Article IV, Section 8
The following classes of persons shall be disqualified for office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of Almighty God.

Article XXXIV
That there shall be no establishment of any one religious church or denomination in this State, in preference to any other.

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Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

May 29, 1790, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was the 13th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, adopted 1842, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, grateful to Almighty God for the civil and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our endeavors to secure and to transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generations, do ordain and establish this constitution of Government.

Article I, Section 3
Whereas Almighty God hath created the mind free; and all attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burdens, or by civil incapacitations, tend to beget habits of hypocrisy and meanness.

The original Charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, issued by Charles II in 1663, remained the Constitution of the Commonwealth until 1842. It stated:

The object of the Colonists is to pursue, with peace and loyal minds, their sober, serious, and religious intentions of godly edifying themselves and one another in the holy Christian faith and worship, together with the gaining over and conversion of the poor ignorant Indian natives to the sincere profession and obedience of the same faith and worship.

In 1835, the word "Protestant" was changed to "Christian".

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Vermont

March 4, 1791, Vermont was the 14th State admitted into the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Vermont, adopted 1777, stated:

Preamble
Whereas all government ought to be instituted and supported for the security and protection of the community, as such, and to enable the individuals who compose it to enjoy their natural rights, and other blessings which the Author of existence has bestowed on man.

Declaration of Rights, III.
That all men have a natural and Unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences and understanding, regulated by the word of GOD;

and that no man ought, or of right can be compelled to attend any religious worship, or erect, or support any place of worship, or maintain any minister, contrary to the dictates of his conscience;

nor can any man who professes the Protestant religion, be justly deprived or abridged of any civil right, as a citizen, on account of his religious sentiment, or peculiar mode of worship, and that no authority can interfere with, or in any manner control, the rights of conscience, in the free exercise of religious worship;

nevertheless, every sect or denomination of people ought to observe the Sabbath, or the Lord’s day, and keep up, and support, some sort of religious worship, which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will of GOD.

The Constitution of the State of Vermont, adopted 1786, stated:

Frame of Government, Section IX
And each member [of the Legislature], before he takes his seat, shall make and subscribe the following declaration, viz:
I do believe in one God, the Creator and Governor of the Universe, the Rewarder of the good and Punisher of the wicked. And I do acknowledge the Scripture of the Old and New Testament to be given by Divine inspiration, and own and profess the Protestant religion.

And no further or other religious test shall ever, hereafter, be required of any civil officer or magistrate in this State.

In 1792, the Constitution of the State of Vermont stated:

Frame of Government, Chapter II, Section XII
And each member, before he takes his seat, shall make and subscribe the following declaration, viz:
You do believe in one God, the Creator and Governor of the Universe, the Rewarder of the good and Punisher of the wicked.

In 1793, the Constitution of the State of Vermont stated:

Chapter I, Article III
That all men have a natural and unalienable right, to worship Almighty God, according to the dictates of their own consciences. Every sect or denomination of Christians ought to observe the Sabbath or Lord’s Day, and keep up some sort of religious worship, which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will of God.

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Kentucky

June 1, 1792, Kentucky was the 15th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Kentucky, adopted 1799, stated:

Article VI, Section 7
The manner of administering an oath or affirmation shall be esteemed by the General Assembly the most solemn appeal to God.

The Constitution of the State of Kentucky, adopted 1891, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberties we enjoy and invoking the continuance of these blessings establish this Constitution.

Bill of Rights, Section 1
The right of worshipping Almighty God according to the dictates of their consciences.

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Tennessee

June 1, 1796, Tennessee was the 16th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, adopted 1796, stated:

Article XI, Section III
That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

Article VIII, Section II
No person who denies the being of God, or a future state of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this State.

Article XI, Section IV
That no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under this State.

The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, adopted 1870, stated:

Article I, Section 3
That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience.

Article IX, Section 2
No person who denies the being of God, or a future state of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this State.

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Ohio

March 1, 1803, Ohio was the 17th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted November 1, 1802, stated:

Article VIII, Section 3
That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their conscience;

that no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience; that no man shall be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry, against his consent; and that no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious society or mode of worship, and no religious test shall be required, as a qualification to any office of trust or profit.

But religion, morality, and knowledge being essentially necessary to the good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of instruction shall forever be encouraged by legislative provision.

The Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted 1852, stated:

Preamble
We the people of the state of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and to promote our common welfare, do establish our Constitution.

Bill of Rights, Article I, Section 7
All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience.

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Louisiana

April 30, 1812, Louisiana was the 18th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Louisiana, adopted 1921, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Louisiana, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberties we enjoy, and desiring to secure the continuance of these blessings, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 4
Every person has the natural right to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.

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Indiana

December 11, 1816, Indiana was 19th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Indiana, adopted 1851, stated:

Preamble
We, the People of the State of Indiana, grateful to Almighty God for the free exercise of the right to chose our form of government, do ordain this Constitution.

Article I, Section 1
We declare, That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.

Article I, Section 2
All men shall be secure in their natural right to worship Almighty God.

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Mississippi

December 10, 1817, Mississippi was the 20th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Mississippi, adopted 1817, stated:

Article IX, Section 16
Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government, the preservation of liberty and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged in this state.

No person who denies the being of God or a future state of rewards and punishments shall hold any office in the civil department of the State.

The Constitution of the State of Mississippi, adopted 1890, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Mississippi in convention assembled, grateful to Almighty God, and invoking His blessing on our work, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article XIV, Section 265
No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state.

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Illinois

December 3, 1818, Illinois was the 21st State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Illinois, adopted 1870, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Illinois, grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon our endeavors to secure and transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generation, establish this Constitution.

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Alabama

December 14, 1819, Alabama was the 22nd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Alabama, adopted 1901, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Alabama, in order to establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and to our posterity, invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God, do ordain and establish the following Constitution and form of government for the State of Alabama.

Article I, Section 1
That they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights.

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Maine

March 15, 1820, Maine was the 23rd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Maine, adopted 1820, stated:

Preamble
We the people of Maine, acknowledging with grateful hearts the goodness of the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe in affording us an opportunity, so favorable to the design; and, imploring His aid and direction, establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 3
All men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

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Missouri

August 10, 1821, Missouri was the 24th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Missouri, adopted 1945 stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Missouri, with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for His goodness, establish this Constitution.

Bill of Rights, Article I, Section 5
That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

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Arkansas

June 15, 1836, Arkansas was the 25th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Arkansas, adopted 1874, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Arkansas, grateful to Almighty God for the privilege of choosing and forming our own government, for our civil and religious liberty, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article II, Section 24
All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

Article XIX, Section 1
No person who denies the being of a God shall hold office in the civil departments of this State, nor be competent to testify as a witness in any court.

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Michigan

January 26, 1837, Michigan was the 26th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Michigan, adopted 1908, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Michigan, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of freedom, establish this Constitution.

Article II, Section 3
Every person shall be at liberty to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.

Article XI, Section 1
Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.

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Florida

March 3, 1845, Florida was the 27th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Florida, adopted 1838, stated:

Bill of Rights
That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; and that no preference shall ever be given by law to any religious establishment or mode of worship.

The Constitution of the State of Florida, adopted 1885, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Florida, grateful to Almighty God for our constitutional liberty, establish this Constitution.

The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship shall forever be allowed in this State, and no person shall be rendered incompetent as a witness on account of his religious opinions, but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to justify licentiousness or practices subversive of, or inconsistent with, the peace or moral safety of the State or society.

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Texas

December 29, 1845, Texas was the 28th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Texas, adopted August 27, 1845, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the Republic of Texas. acknowledging, with gratitude, the grace and beneficence of God, in permitting us to make a choice of our form of government, do, in accordance with the provisions of the Joint Resolution for annexing Texas to the United States, approved March 1, one thousand eight hundred and forty-five, ordain and establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 4
All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences;

no human authority ought, in any case whatever, to control or interfere with the rights of conscience in matters of religion;

but it shall be the duty of the Legislature to pass such laws as may be necessary, to protect every religious denomination in the peaceable enjoyment of their own mode of public worship.

Article I, Section 13
Every citizen shall have the right to keep and bear arms in the lawful defense of himself or the State.

Article III, Section 27
Ministers of the Gospel, being by their profession dedicated to God, and the care of souls, ought not to be diverted from the great duties of their functions.

The Constitution of the State of Texas, adopted 1876, stated:

Preamble
Humbly invoking the blessings of Almighty God we establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 4
Nor shall any one be excluded from holding office on account of his religious sentiments, provided he acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being.

Article I, Section 6
All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

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Iowa

December 28, 1846, Iowa was the 29th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Iowa, adopted 1857, stated:

Preamble
We, the People of the State of Iowa, grateful to the Supreme Being for the blessings hitherto enjoyed, and feeling our dependence on Him for a continuation of these blessings… establish this Constitution.

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Wisconsin

May 29, 1848, Wisconsin was the 30th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Wisconsin, 1848, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Wisconsin, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, domestic tranquility and to promote the general welfare, do establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section 18
The right of every man to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of his own conscience shall never be infringed.

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California

September 9, 1850, California was the 31st State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of California, adopted 1849, stated:

Preamble
We, the People of the State of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, do establish this Constitution.

Section 4
The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this State; and no person shall be rendered incompetent as a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of this State.

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Minnesota

May 11, 1858, Minnesota was the 32nd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Minnesota, adopted 1857, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Minnesota, grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty, and desiring to perpetuate its blessings, establish this Constitution.

Bill of Rights, Article I, Section 16
The right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience shall never be infringed.

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Oregon

February 14, 1859, Oregon was the 33rd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Oregon, adopted 1857, stated:

Bill of Rights, Article I, Section 2
All men shall be secure in the Natural right, to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their consciences.

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Kansas

January 29, 1861, Kansas was the 34th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Kansas, adopted 1859, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Kansas, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious privileges establish this Constitution.

Bill of Rights, Section 7
The right to worship God according to the dictates of conscience shall never be infringed.

Article I, Section VII
Religion, morality, and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the legislature to make suitable provision for the encouragement of schools and the means of instruction.

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West Virginia

June 20, 1863, West Virginia was the 35th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of West Virginia, adopted 1872, stated:

Preamble
Since through Divine Providence we enjoy the blessings of civil, political and religious liberty, we, the people of West Virginia, in and through the provisions of this Constitution, reaffirm our faith in and constant reliance upon God.

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Nevada

October 31, 1864, Nevada was the 36th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Nevada, adopted 1864, stated:

Preamble
We the people of the State of Nevada, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom… establish this Constitution.

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Nebraska

March 1, 1867, Nebraska was the 37th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Nebraska, adopted June 12, 1875, stated:

Preamble
We, the people, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, establish this Constitution.

Article I, Section IV
Religion, morality, and knowledge, however, being essential to good government, it shall be the duty of the legislature to pass suitable laws to encourage schools and the means of instruction.

Bill of Rights, Article I, Section 4
All persons have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

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Colorado

August 1, 1876, Colorado was the 38th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Colorado, adopted 1876, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Colorado, with profound reverence for the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, establish this Constitution.

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North Dakota

November 2, 1889, North Dakota was the 39th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of North Dakota, adopted 1889, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of North Dakota, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

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South Dakota

November 2, 1889, South Dakota was the 40th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of South Dakota, adopted 1889, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of South Dakota, grateful to Almighty God for our civil and religious liberties, establish this Constitution.

Article VI, Section 3
The right to worship God according to the dictates of conscience shall never be infringed.

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Montana

November 8, 1889, Montana was the 41st State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Montana, adopted 1889, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Montana, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty, establish this Constitution.

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Washington

November 11, 1889, Washington was the 42nd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Washington, adopted 1889, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Washington, grateful to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution.

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Idaho

July 3, 1890, Idaho was the 43rd State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Idaho, adopted 1889, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Idaho, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and promote our common welfare do establish this Constitution.

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Wyoming

July 10, 1890, Wyoming was the 44th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Wyoming, adopted 1890, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Wyoming, grateful to God for our civil, political, and religious liberties, establish this Constitution.

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Utah

January 4, 1896, Utah was the 45th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Utah, adopted 1896, stated:

Preamble
Grateful to Almighty God for life and liberty, we establish this Constitution.

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Oklahoma

November 16, 1907, Oklahoma was the 46th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Oklahoma, adopted 1907, stated:

Preamble
Invoking the guidance of Almighty God, in order to secure and perpetuate the blessings of liberty, establish this Constitution.

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New Mexico

January 6, 1912, New Mexico was the 47th State admitted into the Union.

The Constitution of the State of New Mexico, adopted 1911, stated:

Preamble
We, the People of New Mexico, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of liberty.

Article II, Section 2
Every man shall be free to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience.

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Arizona

February 14, 1912, Arizona was the 48th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Arizona, adopted 1912, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of the State of Arizona, grateful to Almighty God for our liberties, do ordain this Constitution.

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Alaska

January 3, 1959, Alaska was the 49th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Alaska, adopted 1956, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Alaska, grateful to God, establish this Constitution.

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Hawaii

August 21, 1959, Hawaii was the 50th State admitted to the Union.

The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, adopted 1959, stated:

Preamble
We, the people of Hawaii, Grateful for Divine Guidance, establish this Constitution.

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